When the child starts to gain language? He
starts earlier than most of us think and ends much later than we think too,
because there is an end of sound and grammar acquisition, but there is always
some new world learn, therefore, language acquisition is an ongoing process
that accompanied us through the different stages of life.

The child starts learning language by
imitation and exploring through babbling, then he  uses a one word sentence, next a two word
sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand his language
which is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing skills too.
Many scientists studied languages acquisition and developed theories about
vocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just applicable
only to the English language, but also to other languages too. Literacy is not
restrained in its use in education or at work, it is part of our everyday life
in malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacy
practice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use of
language, to have confidence in delivering his messages properly in written and
spoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to the
image he wants to deliver to the people around him.

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The orthography system of the English has
its downsides which cause some difficulties that the child needs to conquer to
have a good command over the language, but it has its upsides that simplify the
learning of this language. Currently, English is an international language that
is not just used by native speakers but also by non-native speakers. Through
the course of  learning English there are
identical or divergent problems that both speakers face because two third of
the children around the world are born in bilingual environment.

The language was among the first inventions
of the human being, it has its various systems that represent people’s identity
and history that has been passed on through generations. Allowing the new
generations to express their own time by their own terms gives the language new
words and uses, causing the language to change constantly according to people’s
need.

The theories about language acquisition were
an effort of many scientists that study one language perspective at the time
grammar ,discourse…etc. Getting those bits and pieces into the jigsaw of
language acquisition gives us the big picture and its complexity and wondering  nature.

 

 

 

Language is a
mean of communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken
language emerged first by making sounds that represent pictures which address
the auditory system, then letters and words that address the ophthalmic system
of the human being. The necessity of a writing system aroused from the need to
record events and communicate it with different people across the different
period of time. Different writing systems were developed across the word which
varies in its complexity.(Webster,1806) It relates, letters, syllables and sentence
to communicate language through speaking and writing.                                                                                                                                    

Learning to speak and write are intertwined, the child
starts the process of learning to speak by imitating other people around him,
so Speech is important in developing language skills, improving vocabulary,
receiving and producing language, furthermore, understanding the connection
between spoken and written language is essential to organize and deliver the
meaning of the message in a more efficient and coherent way. (www.lob.ca).                    
      

Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and writing.”
(www.cambridgedictionary.org) or “The art of writing words with the proper
letter according to standard use “(www.meriam-wbster.com) .                                                                                                                              
 The English language is a
syllabic language and has its characteristics,: it consists of twenty-six
letters written from right to left in a sideways top to bottom. In a perfect
language every letter corresponds to a sound, however, some of them correspond
with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).The inconsistencies in the English
orthography made English a challenging language to acquire even for children
who are mono-lingual English native speakers, because many inconsistencies were
not just at the level of the letter and their presentation of more than one sound,
but also at the level of words too.         
                                                                                          

 Historically
the English language is a dialect; its position was elevated and became an
international language spoken by many tongues as a mother language or second or
foreign language, it came into contact with English like Latin, German, French,
Danish which brought many words into the language and changing other words
meaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has French and
Italian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello, now
it is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building on
what is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English is
opaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the English
language causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes the
prediction of its pronunciation and writing very hard.(www,youtube.com)                                                         

There are other difficulties that face not just
children but adult too, for example some sounds stayed or disappeared ,the /f/
sound in words like: cough, enough, through or thought, other sounds were lost
at the beginning of the words in words like: wrong and knee, some letters
become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology, Island. Daughter,
furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is pronounced
vegtable (www.thought.com), and some English letters give many different
pronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear, and heart.

The English orthography stabilized through the
centuries mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helped
in the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document the
pronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference between
different standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(www.youtube.com)
The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help to
differentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar, morphemes like
inflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived. (allington,mayor,2012)

Studies in various aspects of language led to
development of new methods of teaching the English language based on different
perspectives that was adopted by many institution and was pointed out for its
efficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,
which depends on the need and the necessity for the child to express his
emotions, needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken and
written language are closely related literacy becomes a part of a wider
communicative practice, using literacy in this sense involves exchanging
knowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essential
role in the way children acquire language, getting involved in these practices
that will help the children to gain literacy in a more effective way like storybook
reading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,
and literacy practice later in life.(www.2.sfasu.edu)

There are many other reasons that affect
how child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the
society that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the
level of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning,  social class, religion, the position of the
child in the family, and how he deals with the difficulties that he faces which
is part of the child psychology.

The literacy of the child at an early age
is strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to his
or her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that is
intertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices on
a frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction or
adventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring the
language in children is their relationship with their parents and their parent
beliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in school
that facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging children
in songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with
children in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary
texts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to
learn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning
and make it more appealing to him(www.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English has also existed in
bilingual communities that is also affected by religion, social class, schools
parent’s educational level. the bilingual children may have in common impediments
with native speakers or different problems in learning English for example if
their other language is written from right to left, not from left to right they
may start writing English from right to left, or they may think about the
subject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch during
writing.

In the end every child has the right to have the best
of his or her learning experiences, because it affects their whole life and
having difficulties in learning and writing should be  treated starts as a little human with the
ability and the need to express his thoughts, ambitions ,furthermore, the right
to define himself as somebody with possibilities.            

                                                                           

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