There are
a few of ethical principles that should be consider
 when conducting research study. These
ethical principles stress on the need of beneficence and do no harm or non-malfeasance.
In research guidelines, these ethical principles mean that as a researcher, you
need to:

 (1)
minimize risk of harm to the participants  

 (2) obtain informed consent from
potential research participants 

 (3) protect
their anonymity and confidentiality

 (4)
avoid using deceptive practices

 (5) give
participants the right to withdraw from the research

 

1) MINIMISING
THE RISK OF HARM

Research study should not harm participants.
When there is the possibility that participants could be harmed or prone to be
in a position of discomfort, there must be strong justifications for this. Such
scenarios will also require an additional planning to illustrate how
participant harm will be reduced, informed consent, and detailed
debriefing.

2) OBTAINING INFORMED
CONSENT

Informed consent means that participants
should understand that they are taking part in research and what the
research requires from them. Such information may include the purpose of the
research, the method being used, the possible outcomes of the research, as well
as associated demands, discomforts, inconveniences and risks that the
participants may face.

Another component of informed consent is the
principle that participants should be volunteers, taking part without
having been forced and deceived.

3) PROTECTING ANONYMITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY

Protecting the anonymity and confidentiality of
research participants is another practical component of research ethics. Participants
will commonly be willing to volunteer information, especially
information of a private or sensitive nature, if the researcher agrees to hold
such information in confidence. It is possible that research participants may
be hurt in some way if the data collection methods used are somehow insensitive,
there is perhaps a greater danger that harm can be happened once data has been
collected. This occurs when data is not treated appropriately, whether in terms
of the storage of data, analysis or during the submission process. Another
alternative is to remove identifiers as such vernacular terms, names, geographical
cues or provide proxies when writing up the research.

Therefore, we need to consider the way on how
 to overcoming the problems, such as aggregating
data in tables and setting rules to ensure a minimum number of units are
reviewed before data/information can be presented.

4) AVOIDING DECEPTIVE PRACTICES

At
first sight, deceptive practices fly in the face of informed
consent. After all, how can participants notice that they are taking part
in research and  what the research requires of them if they are
being deceived. This is part of what makes the use of deceptive practices
controversial. For this reason, in most circumstances, research study
should be avoid from any kinds of deceptive practices.

5) PROVIDING THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

With
the exception of those instances of covert observation where is not
feasible to let everyone that is being observed know what you are doing,
research participants should always have the right to withdraw from
the research process. Furthermore, participants should have the right to
withdraw at any stage in the research process. When a participant chooses to
withdraw from the research process, they should not be pressured or forced in
any way to try and stop them from withdrawing.