The data for
this study was drawn from currently enrolled students at Davidson College that
participated in a random sample survey. The original target population
consisted of all currently enrolled students at Davidson College with a
presently working email address. The online survey distribution was done using
a randomization procedure known as Kutools from Excel, to select a sample of
individuals from a list of currently enrolled Davidson College student. Kutools
is an add-on tool used in conjunction with Excel to simplify complicated and
time-consuming tasks like random sampling into an immediate list of respondents.

Of the individuals contacted, the response rate of adult children respondents was
extremely high at 91% (n = 671), 86% of which gave completed responses. The
final sample consisted of 611 currently enrolled Davidson College students.

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When compared with U.S. Census statistics, the sample was closely
representative of the national population data of 2016 with respect to racial
identification, education, and sex. The sample was racially diverse and
it is possible that if the survey was done with a racially homogenous group it could
have operated differently.  To avoid the possibility of bias there were
no sample exclusions (beyond incomplete data) from the collected survey samples.

Measures1

            The
adult children surveyed in this study provided information that pertained to the
quality of their parents (or guardians) relationship, as well as their
attitudes toward their parent’s relationship. This data was compiled and analyzed in
Table B1 (See Appendix B), which presents descriptive information for
variables attained. G1 G2 

When compared
with U.S. Census data, the sample was closely representative with respect to racial
identification, education, and sex. The survey had a relatively equal split in regard to sex (men and women)
with response percentages at 47.1% male and 52.6% female. G3 G4 The United States population is known
to have an almost even split between the male and female gender, where 50.8% of
people born male and 49.2% female. The vast majority of the United States
population is one race, of these, the largest group reported white alone,
accounting for 72 percent of all people living in the United States ((“US
Census Bureau Public Information Office”, 2017). The African American
population represents 13 percent of the total population and Asian identified
at 5 percent of the total population (“US Census Bureau Public Information
Office”, 2017). The overwhelming majority of responders in this study were
similar to that of the US Census Bureau’s data where 72.1 percent of the
population was white, 12.1 percent were African American, and 6.8 percent were Asian.

The typical responder was between 18 and 23 years of age at the time of data
collection, with a mean age of 19.63 years.G5 

Adult children’s
attitudes. The measures of
adult children’ s attitudes are pulled from views regarding marriage, divorce,
cohabitation, and remaining single for the survey respondents’ past and future (see
Appendix B1 for text). The survey consisted of a complete a ten-scale
questionnaire reflecting dimensions of adult children’s attitudes toward parent
relationships and future relationships. From this ten-item measure, there was a
six-item scale pulled to analyze. Composed of one item each the attitudes
toward marriage, divorce, cohabitation, and remaining single are compiled in
Appendix B. Only one category has two items used to capture attitude and that
is marriage. For each family structure, there is a created average index after
coding each of the items so that a high score represents greater support. The final
scale where items were coded and scaled can be seen in Table G6 B1.

G7 

Parents’ relationship
quality. Survey responders
completed a ten-scale questionnaire reflecting dimensions of relationship
quality. Of that ten-scale questionnaire, relationshipG8 
quality was measured with a mixed 5-items chosen to measure relationship
happiness, interaction, and conflict in their parent’s relationship (see
Appendix D). This 5-item relationship quality scale was pulled from a
previously published study demonstrated that these items could be represented
by two latent variables, one reflecting positive relationship quality
(happiness and interaction), and the other reflecting negative relationship
quality (conflict, problems, and instability) (Johnson et al, 1986). On the
basis of this previous work, two latent variables were formed, which were referred
to as relationship closeness and relationship strain, respectively. Similar to
the coding of adult children’s attitudes, there is a created average index
after coding each of the items so that a high score represents greater support.

            Adult child’s recollections of parental closeness
and strain. Being that students
were surveyed after reaching adulthood, there was no measure of adult
children’s perceptions of parental strain and closeness as adolescents. To
remedy this gap (albeit imperfectly), reliance was placed on adult children’s only
for recollections of parental strain during childhood. For example, childhood
perceptions were based onG9 
questions like the following: “From an early age, there was tension in my
parents’ relationship” (1 = strongly agree, 2 = somewhat agree, 3= don’t know,
4= agree, and 5=strongly disagree) and “I feel secure in my parent’s decision
to have parted ways” (1 = strongly agree, 2 = somewhat agree, 3= don’t know, 4=
agree, and 5=strongly disagree). The two responses were significantly
correlated (p

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