Techniques to Reduce the
Environmental Impacts:

To
control the environment effect we have to monitor the emission from the plant,
that is to capture and request the co??from the emission. As the
zero emission depend on the capturing and request of co??one types
of the example of power plant is Elsam power station at Esbjerg, Denmark. Also
one types of recommendation is to use a clean coal in power plant. By clean
means that is chemically washed and treated. The cost effective method to run
coal power plant efficiency is to operate power plant on diverse types of fuel.
For example a conversion to biomass or municipal was base power plant. From these
types of power plant the emission level is estimated is about 20% less carbon dioxide
as compare to coal fired unit operating at a same capacity.

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Combined heat and power:

It
is the method in which electricity and heat is generated. Is stead of to
release heat at higher temperature as compare to normal temperature, it is used
to heat abuilding. This method is commonly used in some country like Denmark
and other Scandinavian countries and parts of Germany. CHPDH is the lowest cost
method of reduction in carbon emission.

Options for fossil fuel power
plants:

The
options other than coal-fired power plants contain hydroelectric power, nuclear
power, solar power, wind power, geothermal power, and tidal and new renewable
energy techniques. Some of the power generating technologies are proven on
large industrial scale (i.e., hydroelectric, nuclear, wind, and tidal power)
while others are in prototype stage.

Cost by power generation source:

The
cost which is based on fossil fuel power plant of life about from 30 year to 50
years is very attractive for the inventors because it has low investment cost.
i.e., about 1000 to 1300 dollar per kilowatt electricity as compared to 2000 dollar
per kilowatt from an onshore wind farm. So these cost when calculated is when
it include cost of electricity and which does not include the supplementary to
the pollutant generated due to fossil fuel burning burning (e.g., increased
respiratory diseases).

Particulate matter control:

These
particles are mostly classified as PM 2.5 and PM 10. PM 2.5 who’s size about
2.5 micrometers or less than that. The class of particulate matter PM10 has a
size of about 10 micrometer or less and it also includes PM2.5. As compare to
courser particle the PM2.5 is more harmful to health.

A
particulate matter control device design to control the emission of particulate
with the exhaust stream of gas. It remove the collected PM and does not allow
it to reinter the the stream. The main particulate matter control devices are Electrostatic
Precipitators (ESP), Fabric Filters (FF), Mechanical Collectors (MC) and Venture
Scrubbers (VS). Each type is designed to control a specific size of particulate
matter.

As
the FF has a filter bags which control the PM by a fine filters in these bags ,
The ESP remove the PM by creating electromagnetic field, the cyclone separator
remove the particulate matter by using centrifugal force, Electrostatic
Precipitators, Fabric Filters, are more reliable to fulfill the requirement of
EPA of high efficiency and reliability.

NOx control:

The
conventional NOx is now a days new ones which is low NOx
burner. This low NOx burner use advance fluid dynamics and flame
thermodynamics methods due to which flame temperature is decreased and thus low
NOx is produced. NOx can be controlled by using selective
catalytic reduction or non-catalytic reduction system. In these process system catalectic
is added to the system reduce NOx to N2 and H2O.
Usually the most common catalyst used in the selective non catalytic reduction
system is urea and ammonia. . selective non catalytic reduction system
introduce offer  urea into temperature
range of 760°C to 1100°C (1400°F to 2012 °F)., urea may react with available
oxygen to form NOx  Within this range and
in this way the NOx removed about from 15% to 35%.

SO2 control:

The
emissions of SO2 can be controlled by three methods.

 1) Blending of fuel.

 2) Switching fuel, with a fuel having lower
sulfur contents.

3)
Removing the SO2 from the flue gases.

There
are several of technologies which remove SO2. The most common technologies are,
wet flue gas desulphurization (FGD), dry flue gas desulphurization. The dry use
a spray dryer absorber (SDA) or circulating dry scrubber (CDS), or dry sorbent
injection (DSI).

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