Republic/ ConstitutionShays RebellionArticles of Confederation: Crafted in 1781, the Articles of Confederation was adopted by the Second Continental Congress. Although it is the nation’s first constitution, it granted heavy control to the states with limited power to the federal government, causing confusion and chaos. This however was important in uniting the United States towards independence and promising a path of democracy for the colonies. Land Ordinance of 1785; Northwest Ordinance, 1787: The Northwest Ordinance regulated the terms and conditions for newly admitted states. This made new states unable to have slavery, but allowed voters to establish a slave institution. This provided groundwork for the expansive northwest territory. However, as always conflict always followed. Whether or not a territory should be admitted was up for debate. Enlightenment; John Locke: Also known as the Age of Reason, the Enlightenment is an 18th century movement in Western philosophy, wanting change for the depressive human state and improved living conditions. It challenged customs, morals, and set institutions. This prompted developments in science, education, arts, and philosophy. Federalism: The idea centered around having a strong and centralized government, This was fueled by Shays Rebellion, as Federalism was a response to economic and civil injustice. From John Adams, Federalism reached its peak but from his decline Federalism reached an end to its substantial influence. Federalists; Anti-Federalists; The Federalist PapersU. S. Constitution (including Bill of Rights): The Bill of Rights consisted of the first Ten Constitutional Amendments. This guaranteed rights to all American citizens regardless of circumstance, and was enacted by Anti-Federalists fearing government control on colony rights. The US Constitution established national government and fundamental laws in which the country abides by, creating groundwork for governmental branches, procedures on running a nation, and actions the president should uphold. Charles Beard, Economic Interpretation of the Constitution American Revolution: The American Revolution was an event that took place in between 1765 and 1783, where the 13 colonies enacted war against Britain. Invoked by Salutary Rigor, the American Revolution is a reaction from the colonies of Britain’s tight control. It is when too many resources were used and the effort but in was substantial where the colonies declared independence from Britain. Washington’s Farewell Address: Presented in 1796, George Washington issued a document declaring his retirement from office. His address related to domestics issues rather than international affairs, stressing the importance of keeping away from permanent alliances, and keeping bitterness between parties limited or nonexistent. Republican Motherhood: Linked to Republican ideals, the role of women was elevated as the caretaker of the future generation. It made being a mother and a carer of America’s future children a highly important role in keeping America’s conscience and morals clean. Republican motherhood was also an idea that prompted women to spend more time to their families, dedicating their time in creating a prosperous household. Essential Questions What impact did Europeans have on Native Americans and vice versa?Why did three distinct regions develop among the original thirteen colonies?  How were their economies different?  What did they have in common? What was life like during colonial America?  How did the colonies develop “democratic” principles? Was 1763 a turning point in history?  If so, how come? What was the significance of the Seven Year’s War (French and Indian War)?What were the causes of the American Revolution?  How did British policies appear to violate colonial economic and political rights?  Who was involved? Was it a radical or conservative revolution?How did the Revolution affect the lives of women and African Americans?Why did the Articles of Confederation fail? What were the strengths of the Articles?What ideas influenced the Constitution? What compromises were made to create the Constitution?  Whose interests were served in creation of the federal government? Early Republic/Federalist EraFederalists ; Anti-FederalistsThe Federalist Papers: They are a collection of essays that is meant to how a new government should work. It is written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison, which purpose was to argue why a strong centralized government is needed for a nation to be most effective. This was meant to ratify the constitution to the New York state legislature. Bill of Rights: The Bill of Rights consist of the First Ten Amendments, meaning to guarantee the rights of all citizens. It also ensured the protection of the five basic liberties: freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition. This is significant as it ensured a nation with rights that had not occured prior to such a scale, securing the next road of the colonies to have the basic freedoms. Supreme Courtinfant industriesnational debttariffs; excise taxesFrench RevolutionProclamation of Neutrality (1793)”Citizen” Edmond GenetJay’s Treaty (1794)Pinckney Treaty (1795)Battle of Fallen TimbersWhiskey Rebellion (1794): As many farmers in Pennsylvania were upset by Hamilton’s tax on whiskey, a riot occured which led to the deaths of federal officers. The tax was enacted in order to pay off debts from the Revolutionary War. This event was significant as it demonstrated the swiftness in government response, also proving that the Federal Government has a right to collect taxes.  Federalist EraGeorge WashingtonDemocratic-Republican partyWashington’s Farewell Address: Presented in 1796, George Washington issued a document declaring his retirement from office. His address related to domestics issues rather than international affairs, stressing the importance of keeping away from permanent alliances, and keeping bitterness between parties limited or nonexistent. John AdamsXYZ AffairAlien and Sedition Acts: They are four acts passed in 1798 by Federalist Congress  that were signed by President Adams. The four acts are the Naturalization Act, the Alien Act, the Alien Enemy Act, and the Sedition Act. The Naturalization Act increased citizen waiting time from 5 to 14 years, the Alien Act allowed the president to arrest and deport aliens, the Alien Enemy Act allowed war enemy citizens in the US to be deported, and the Sedition Act made it illegal to publish negative statements on federal officials. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: They are political statements declaring that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. Both Resolutions argued that states had the right to declare any acts of Congress that are not upheld by the Constitution to be unconstitutional. The Resolutions were written anonymously by James and Madison. Revolution 1800Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson was one of the founding fathers of the United States and was also the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. He arranged for the Louisiana purchase and was our third president.  He and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican party and also spoke out during the Enlightenment. Alexander Hamilton: Alexander Hamilton helped achieve ratification of 51 out of the 85 installments in The Federalist Papers, which today are considered the single most important reference for Constitutional Interpretation. He worked very closely with George Washington, another founding father of the United States, and led the Treasury Department. Louisiana Purchase: The Louisiana Purchase, arranged by Thomas Jefferson, was one of the biggest purchases added to the United States, almost instantly doubling it’s size. Because of this purchase it gave the United States control over the Mississippi River and the port city of New Orleans. It was signed in 1803 and gave the United States  800,000 square miles of French territory.strict v. loose interpretationJohn Marshall: John Marshall was an American politician and the fourth chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1801. He was also largely responsible for establishing the Supreme Court’s role within federal government. He was nominated by John Adams and became the longest serving Chief Justice and fourth longest serving Justice in United States Supreme Court history. Although many of his decisions were unpopular at the time, he built up the third branch and augmented federal power in the name of the Constitution. Judicial review; Marbury v. Madison: In 1803, Marbury v Madison was a landmark which forms the basis of Judicial review in the United States under the third article of the Constitution. This was arguably the most important case in history. Because of this, the Judicial Branch was greatly strengthened and the Federal Constitution enabled Congress to establish certain rules and procedures in the operation of the federal courts. Jacksonian Eracommon man: spoils system; rotation in officeJohn Quincy Adams”corrupt bargain”Tariff of 1816universal male suffrage: lhjklParty nominating convention; “King Caucus”Tariff of 1828, “Tariff of Abominations”; Nullification Crisis: bnmbnm,lSecond Bank of United StatesIndian Removal Act (1830); Trail of Tears: hjklCherokee Nation v. Georgia ; Worchester v. Georgia: bnm,Nicholas Biddle: ghjkl;Democrats; Whigs: ghjkl;Roger TaneySpecie Circular; “pet banks”Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America,1835Foreign Policy/War of 1812Barbary piratesImpressments: fghjkl;Chesapeake-Leopard affairEmbargo Act (1807): ghjklNonintercourse Act (1808): ghjklMacon’s Bill No. 2 (1810): Macon’s Bill Number Two was a law that became a part of the United States in May of 1810 which was made motivate Great Britain and France to discontinue their seizing of the United States’ vessels whilst during the Napoleonic Wars. Tecumseh; ProphetWilliam Henry HarrisonBattle of Tippecanoe”War hawks”: War hawks were people who were quarrelsome, inclined to fight, belligerent. People who were war hawks wanted war and they were particularly popular around 1812, when the War of 1812 was taking place. They were fighters in the war and incredibly passionate, helping to cause their win sometimes. Henry ClayJohn C. CalhounWar 1812: The War of 1812 was a very big war that lasted for two years and was between Andrew Jackson: Andrew Jackson was the seventh United States President from 1829 to 1837. Many of his actions as president were very debatable whether they were constitutional or not, for example when he went against supreme power to do something, and he did many new things to the US like establishing pet banks. Although he was either loved or hated, he was overall considered a “war hero” due to the final end of the War of 1812 during his rule. He also briefly ran in the Senate, representing Tennessee. Battle of Horseshoe BendBattle of New OrleansTreaty of Ghent (1814): The Treaty of Ghent was very significant because it was the peace treaty that finally ended the War of 1812 on December 24th, 1814. Both the United States and the United Kingdom signed willingly on this date, after four months of having discussing. Hartford Convention (1814): The Hartford Convention was a series of meetings in the early 1800s in which the federalist party of New England met to discuss the War of 1812 which had still been going on then. Not only was the War of 1812 discussed, but the problems considering political parties and thinking up ways to appease the tensions. NationalismMonroe Doctrine     Essential Questions Why did the Articles of Confederation fail to create an effective, long-term government?How was the Constitution created?  What were the debates at the convention?  Is the Constitution revolutionary or counterrevolutionary?What are the political philosophies of Hamilton, Jefferson and Jackson? How did each of these men shape the development of the United States?Why is this era often referred to as the Federalist era?  What were the challenges for the U.S. in foreign policy at this time (1789-1801)?How did the War of 1812 change America politically, culturally and economically?What’s the big deal about Andrew Jackson?  What reforms happened in his era? What was Jacksonian Democracy?Essential QuestionsWhat were the challenges for the U.S. in foreign policy during the early years of the republic?How did the War of 1812 change America politically, culturally and economically?How did the belief in Manifest Destiny influence politics and policies in the 1840s?What were the causes and effects of the Mexican American War? How did the Mexican War promote sectional division rather than national unity?How did the actions of the federal government open the West to settlement after the Civil War?How did the frontier act as a “safety valve” for Americans after the Civil War?  Was the West really wild?  What do you make of Turner’s Frontier Thesis?Antebellum:Eli Whitney, interchangeable parts, cotton gin: Eli Whitney was the creator of both the cotton gin, and interchangeable parts, which were both incredibly impactful inventions on society. Whitney made interchangable parts which completely changed the system of making things, for parts were then able to be interchanged, which facilitated manufacturing and saved money in the long run as well. He also created the cotton gin, which was a new way of collecting cotton from the lands. Instead of being hand picked by slaves, the cotton gin was a tool which (although was still difficult on the slaves), did facilitate the collecting of it and made it faster. American Colonization SocietyAbolitionism: Abolitionist was the movement in which many people were opposed to slavery and therefore protested against it. These people were called abolitionists. Abolitionism was a super opposed against idea and there were so many people who were strongly against it. The movement against slavery lasted for many many years and people were typically incredibly passionate one way or another about the topic and although it was a conflict lasting for so long, the final victory of abolitionism wasn’t until the 1860s. Even then though, changing societal norms was difficult. Sectionalism: Sectionalism is the societal movement in which a group is divided, whether it be among a country or among people themselves. It is simply the division among something that was a whole, therefore kind of making it into “sections” if you will, hence the name sectionalism.  William Lloyd Garrison, The Liberator: William Lloyd Garrison was an American journalist born in 1805. He was passionate in what he believed in and was an abolitionist, a suffragist, and a social reformer. In his newspaper, The Liberator, he called for the immediate freedom of the slaves and also for the end of political ties between the North and the South. American Antislavery Societythe Grimke sistersNat Turner (Rebellion): In 1831, due to being fed up with the segregation between the blacks and whites, Nat Turner claimed he saw a vision, and attacked multiple whites in Southampton County, Virginia. During this, 70  blacks and 55 whites were killed. He was later caught and executed, though left a big impact on the society as he fought strongly for freedom among them. Sojourner TruthGabriel ProsserFredrick Douglass”King Cotton”Free Soil PartyMissouri Compromise, 1820Compromise of 1850: provisions and impactFugitive Slave LawHenry ClayJohn C. Calhoununderground RR; Harriet TubmanUncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher StoweOstend ManifestoRepublican Party, birth of (1854)Stephen A. Douglaspopular sovereignty36? 30′ line”Bleeding Kansas”John BrownLecompton ConstitutionDred Scott decisionChief Justice Roger B. TaneyLincoln-Douglas Debates; Freeport Doctrine