Pakistan is an immensely populated and
multi-cultural country in South Asia that encompasses many ethnic groups such
as Punjabis, Pashtuns, Sindhis, Seraikis, Muhajirs, Balochs, amongst several
others. It is most commonly known as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, which is
a highly advanced and modernized civilization that retains the fifth largest
population in the world. With being a predominantly Indo-Iranian speaking
country, Pakistan closely neighbors Iran, Afghanistan, India, and China. In
1947, Pakistan became a sovereign state under the reign of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and
attained independence from British rule. Periodically, Pakistan has endured
many troublesome burdens to achieve political stability, social development,
and economic security. The country’s capital is Islamabad, in the hillside of
the Himalayas in the northern region, whereas Karachi is the most populous city
that is located on the South shore of the Arabian Sea. Pakistan was brought
into existence due to the separation from British India, in reaction to the appeals
of Islamic nationalists, spearheaded by the authority of the All India Muslim
League. From autonomy until 1971, Pakistan consisted of two provinces,
particularly, West Pakistan in the Indus River Valley and East Pakistan in the
delta of the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin. With regards to the dignified
domestic political turmoil that emerged in 1971 from the civil war, Pakistan
has declared the independent sovereignty of Bangladesh.

Pakistan embodies an affluent variety of
landscapes, beginning in the northwest, from the Pamirs and the Karakoram Range
through a spectrum of mountain territories, intricate valleys, and contentious
plateaus, down to the exceptionally even terrain of the fruitful Indus River,
which drains into the Arabian Sea. It encompasses a sector of the historic Silk
Road and the Khyber Pass, the infamous corridor that has transported foreign
influences into the diversely secluded subcontinent. Alongside the Indus River
basin, the artery of Pakistan, the ancient scenery of Mohenjo-Daro is one of
the postmarks of the significance of civilization. Pakistan is bordered by Iran
on the west, Afghanistan to the northwest and north, China to the northeast,
and India to the east and southeast, and the Arabian Sea coast bordering the
southern region.

This year alone, the population of
Pakistan is approximated to exceed 194 million inhabitants. The country’s autonomous
social changes have been the driving force for expeditious urbanization and the
development of populous cities that corresponds with the global movement most
commonly referred to as social globalization. Pakistan is a multi-ethnic
civilization and is home to one of the largest refugee populations worldwide. The
national, linguistic affiliation of Pakistan is Urdu, however many public representatives,
professionals, and natives can speak English, whereas English is known to be
Pakistan’s informal official language. Urdu was established by piecing together
the languages of early historic aliens and settlers, including, Arabic,
Persian, and Turkish. While Urdu and English are predominantly spoken through
the country, several other languages are practiced in different valleys and regions,
which consists of Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, and Hindko dialects, amongst many
others. Pakistan’s multi-cultural society constitutes many distinct races and
ethnic backgrounds; however, the lump sum of the Pakistani people belongs to
the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. The Pakistan census illustrates the country’s
major ethnic identities, which comprises of the Punjabis, Pukhtuns, and Sindhis.
The remaining cultural groups are subdivided into smaller categories that consist
of the Muhajirs, Balochis, Brahui, Kashmiri, amongst many others residing in
the northern areas. Islam is the country’s primary religion and is practiced by
the vast majority of Pakistani people, whereas Muslims are separated into Sunni
Islam or Shias. Freedom of religious practice is an unalienable right safeguarded
by the Constitution of Pakistan, which established the fundamental protection
that all Pakistani natives, regardless of religion have equitable liberties. However,
Pakistan is also home to a small percentage of non-Muslim religions, who
practice Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, alongside a few others.

The political structure of Pakistan takes
precedent within the framework that the Constitution established. Pakistan is a
federal parliamentary republic; whereby provincial governments favor an
exceptionally high standard of autonomy and residuary powers. Executive
authority is bestowed in the national cabinet, which is spearheaded by the
prime minister, who works systematically alongside the bicameral parliament and
judicial assembly. Similar to the American democracy within the United States,
regulations set forth by the Constitution inhibit a sharing of governmental
powers within a careful check and balance system, which make up the executive,
judiciary, and legislature. The head of state or President of Pakistan is
Mamnoon Hussain, who was elected to serve a five-year presidential term. The
presidency was an important component until the passage of the eighteenth
amendment in 2010, which deprived the head of state of its absolute power.
Since then, Pakistan has been changed from a semi-presidential system to
exclusively a parliamentary government. The executive branch is composed of the
cabinet and is controlled by the prime minister, which is entirely independent
of the legislature. The Senate is the upper house, while the National Assembly
is the lower house. The judiciary forms with the balance of the Superior Court
as a culmination court, parallel to the higher courts, and other secondary
courts. The sole purpose of the judicial system is to adjudicate the federal
laws, regulations, and the Constitution. Pakistan is a multi-candidate
political democracy where numerous political parties occupy seats in the
federal and provincial assemblies. As an outcome of the collapse of Dhaka in
1971, a duel-party system was instilled amongst the Peoples Party and the
Muslim League. There has also been a significant escalation in popularity of middle
ground parties, namely the Pakistan Muslim League-Q and the Pakistan
Tehreek-e-Insaf. Pakistan’s creation of military forces has contributed to a
prominent purpose in the country’s political climate. ¬†Between the 1950’s and early 2000’s, many
coups were orchestrated to conquer democratic regimes. However, as a direct
result of President Musharraf’s resignation in 2008, a distinctive line has
been established separating politics and military personnel, whereas Pakistan
is taking strides to attain a liberal democracy.