One’s biological status which also called as sex is assigned since birth
(Scutti, 2014). People only can be either female or
male that we can confirm by checking the sexual organ or hormone. What triggers
my interest in this topic is LGBT people have suffered and struggled a lot in
society duo to their sexual orientation. Many people having prejudice and
stereotypes on them and finally cause discrimination on LGBT person. Society
will put more attention to one’s sexual orientation instead of personality. It
is easy to see that sometimes society is judging a person by looking at his or
her sexual orientation. Having a normal sexual orientation that heterosexual is
important and have to clarified, which also said as heterosexism, nowadays when
interacting with others as people only recognize heterosexual (GLSEN, 2002). Heterosexual means in a relationship
with different gender. Many evidence prove that if people cannot get or
maintain his or her job if the person declare that he is not heterosexual (Badgett, Lau, Sears, & Ho, 2007). Unfortunately,
there have a percentage of people will
prefer to be the opposite gender to behave and think like the opposite gender
or have a sexual orientation that is homosexual or bisexual. Since LGBT people
are the minority in the world, they are not accepted by society and faced a lot
of discrimination and sarcasm from majority of people who called themselves as
normal as is heterosexual (Smith, Oades, &
McCarthy, 2012). Marriage between homosexual is still not accepted by
international, however there still have some state are allowed for example,
there have five municipal administration in japan are admit that homosexual
relationship is equivalent to marriage (Amnesty International, 2017). Most
religious circumstances are also not recognizing LGBT (Barnes and Meyer, 2012).
The four-main type of person that fall into ‘abnormal’ range are the lesbian
(L), Gay (G), bisexual (B), and transsexual (T) which has a shorthand of LGBT. Public
and political have put core attention on this issue since it gradually become a
main topic in society as it not only about intrapersonal and also related to interpersonal.
Lesbian and gay are the person who is homosexual that they are attracted to the
same gender physically and emotionally (GLSEN, 2002). People especially old
folk normally have a traditional thinking that only different gender can be
into a relationship and if someone not fall in this range, they will call it as
abnormal or even perverted in slang. Bisexual is the one who attracted to both
gender, either female or male (GLSEN, 2002). Although bisexual person more
easily hidden in society, as they still can love with their opposite gender, but
most of people also cannot accept them as thinking that they are disgusting.
Transsexual is the one most been discriminated and rejected by society. This
type of person conflict with their own self biological gender role and will
preferred to become opposite side of their gender even in physical
characteristics (Lord, 2017). Transsexual individual will transition from own
gender to another gender by using hormones or do surgery to change their
biological gender (Scutti, 2014).
of all, when come into the issue of discrimination against LGBT people, the
question that appear is what affect people to discriminate against LGBT
community so much? Discrimination against LGBT people comes from prejudice and
stereotype toward the term of LGBT (Smith, Oades, & McCarthy, 2012).
Activation of schemas occurs where their bad cognition about LGBT influence
their emotion. Initially, people generate a feeling of fear and uncomfortable
to the relationship between same sex and this called homophobia (GLSEN, 2002).
Same as also transphobia which produce a hatred or dread to transgender group (GLSEN,
2002). Since they generate bad feeling, they prejudice on LGBT which first they
have a bad belief on LGBT and they can feel how they dislike is then contribute
to them to discriminate towards the LGBT group (Dovidio,
Hewstone, Glick, & Esses, 2010). These three steps can arrange as
cognitive component and affective component then cause conative component (Dovidio,
Hewstone, Glick, & Esses, 2010). So, discrimination happens is because
people has a misunderstanding and bad feeling of the LGBT community which
create stereotype and prejudice.
reason why people discriminate against LGBT group is also can be people tend to
ignores part of information to achieve the goal to judge quickly or make
decision faster that means heuristic or mental shortcut (Gigerenzer and
Gaissmaier, 2011). People are relying on their feeling and emotion which cause
them judge or decide something in a quicker and simple way (Slovic, Finucane, Peters, & MacGregor, 2007). In
this case, people judge the LGBT group based on their bad emotion on them and
make a quickly conclusion that they are disgust or dirty and lead to
discrimination. They do not analysis before they make decision which is important
in judging (Slovic, Finucane, Peters, & MacGregor, 2007). Discrimination
against LGBT people is a type of representative heuristics. People use recent
evidence to make decision when judging towards LGBT group (Dumm, Eckles, Nyce,
& Volkman-Wise, 2013). They may have heard from some news saying that LGBT
people are the one has the high percentage having sexually transmitted disease
or HIV. Therefore, when they meet LGBT people, they will make a quick judgment
and fast decision that those people are dirty and unhealthy which lead them
behave negatively and badly to LGBT group.
bias also act as a factor in affecting discrimination against LGBT people. They
tend to confirm their own belief by selectively believe in evidence that
consistent or similar to their belief (Hernandez and
Preston, 2013). They are disregard the possibility of hypotheses that may contrary
to their belief (Hergovich, Schott, & Burger, 2010). People usually cling
to own belief strongly and is take time and energy to change one’s belief (Hernandez
and Preston, 2013). Basically, most of the people have an idea that
heterosexual is only the right sexual orientation in world and there is
enormous mistake if someone change the gender that parents give naturally into opposite
sex. LGBT group have totally contrary to the social norms belief and basic
morality that belief in majority (Howard, 2001).
Therefore, to confirm their own believes, they think that LGBT group are
undeserving dignity and revere from society (Howard, 2001). They do not
considered evidence fully then do a decision to discrimination against LGBT
people (Hernandez and Preston, 2013).
In the same time, most people also conform
to their own culture which defined as the software of people’s mind that manifested
fundamental in ethical and norms (Beckmann, Menkhoff,
& Suto, 2007). Culture play an importance effect on influencing how
society look upon and treat these group of persons. Traditional values in
culture had be considered to be a main component in life and was passed on from
generation to next generation, that had so strong effect that internalized in
one’s belief through life (Gao, Zuo, Wang, Lou, Cheng, &
Zabin, 2012). Some culture is straightly restricted their follower to have
sex with same gender or change their biologically sex into another based on
their confirmation bias. They think this action is not holy. This type of
believe cause society strongly disagree and not allowed the appearance of LGBT.
Some people in society actually is
tend to accept the exist of LGBT individual but they are more likely to
discrimination against LGBT group same as other people due to conformity.
Conformity is a term said that one’s behavior or attitude subject to change
when affected by others in the way of adhere to the social norms (Zhou, Horrey, & Yu, 2009).
They conform to their behavior as wanted to maintain their reliability in
society (Pelé et al., 2017).
People are conforming to the society or culture to behave like others to
discriminate against LGBT people. According to Zhou and Horrey (2010), individuals that
conform would behave in mien that is identical with others. If a people declare
that he is one of the LGBT person, he will face many discriminations from
society. First, if the family is care about their reputation or is tradition,
the person will face vigorous oppose from his close relationship and may cause kicked
out from the family. Nevertheless, the person will find difficulty in get to
know new friend or even his old friend will break off relationship with him.
Furthermore, he will find difficult to continue his job as all his co-worker
will isolate and repel him as what called workplace discrimination (Badgett,
Lau, Sears, & Ho, 2007). Sometimes even worse, the person will force to
resign due to his sexual orientation or unemployment (Badgett, Lau, Sears,
& Ho, 2007). Why all these bad things happen? It is similar to what theory
had said at above. The family, friend and colleague discriminate against LGBT
due to prejudice and stereotype, confirmation bias, conformity and sometimes
even group influences which people influence by group in thinking and cause
prejudice, stereotype and discrimination against LGBT individuals.
conclusion, there have many reason that caused people discriminate against LGBT
community. Society lacking understanding towards LGBT group and even the people
who closer to LGBT people like their family member also cannot understand why
they have the different sexual orientation lead LGBT people think the problem
is happen on them, start blaming themselves and will have the intent to harm
themselves (Amnesty International, 2017).
Most of them have difficulty to be insured
compare to general population (Pfiedler enterprises, 2015).
According to Pfiedler enterprises (2015), they also easily get a postponed or
denied health care from parent, doctor or people surrounding due to
discrimination and the transsexual people are the one who have the big
probability in getting postponed care. Zhao, Montoro, Igartua, and Thombs (2010)
said that people who classified as LGBT have a higher risk in suicidal behavior
compared to heterosexual person. LGBT people passed through discrimination in
the way of disturbances, enmity, bullying, physically and verbal violence and
the most harmful is come from having big stress that parents and family members
who the person should close to them are reject and not willing to face them (Haas
et al., 2011).
behaving negatively to LGBT group, people need to think well and carefully by
considering their feeling and situation. People has to prepare full information
about LGBT and understand them in all perspective before we stereotype and
prejudice or even discriminate on LGBT community. Stop decide something in a
short time and brief understanding helps minimize the discrimination against
LGBT individuals which cause bad effect.