Introduction – Singapore Airlines

            Singapore Airlines Limited (SIA) is one of the world’s distinguished passenger and cargo carriers. The business possesses modern fleet of aircraft that travel to nearly all parts of the world. Similarly, Changi Airport is continuously voted the best Airport in Asia and the World. These two prestigious acclamations however, risk being snatched from them since SIA not be aware of its own strength and threats.

SIA had originated from a modest cause back since 1947. The first operation was when a twin-engine Airspeed Consul began its operation between Singapore, Kuala, Lumpur, Penang, and Ipoh. It prompted a higher traveller request in the district, thus to the modern carrier.     With the creation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, the industry use the name Malaysian Airways and soon after Malaysian-Singapore Airlines (MSA). In 1972, MSA halted its operations, and it resulted in the formation of 2 separate Airlines, Malaysian and Singapore Airlines each representing the name of the country it bears. With good planning, innovation as well as investment, SIA rapidly got bigger and improved its fleet to be the world’s best. It mostly deals with cargo and passenger transportation.

            The airline industry are affected by many factors ranging from political, social, economic, technological, environmental as well as legal factors. Each of these constituents play a part to the success of the industry and the national carriers. SIA is a symbol of pride for Singaporeans. To this date, SIA also carries an international presence in the Australasian and Asian markets. Singapore is recognised for its achievement even in other areas of the economy like pharmaceutical as well as petroleum refining. These complimentary industries make Singapore an attractive country for work and leisure. This paves the way for the prosperity of the SIA.

Political Factors Affecting SIA

Good and reliable governance had the bedrock for an effective economic environment for businesses to thrive. In general, we can be grateful that the government took a holistic approach to establish Singapore as an ideal place for businesses, jobs and livelihood. Government arms in Singapore like the Economic Development Board (EDB), Singapore Tourism Board, Spring Singapore etc. have extended and promoted Singapore and provided grants as well as targeted assistance for many SMEs and MNCs like Airliners based in Singapore.

The Singapore government has taking proactive approach ensuring the quality deliverables for SIA, crew well-being and overall satisfaction towards SIA. For example, back in 1980, SIA hit a rough patch and its reputation taking a bad hit. Disputes between the SIA management and Pilot’s Union took a toll on all parties involved. This dispute arises mainly over, basic salary demands and better working conditions. The strike was eventually put down by the Prime Minister himself resulting in the sacking and charging of three pilots and an engineer. As we have observed  Singapore Government is ready to step in and deal with potential threats to SIA’s reputation.

Economic Factors Affecting SIA

Uncertainties in fuel costs has a big impact on the airline industry. Such uncertainties may require airlines to raise the prices and pass over the increased fuel costs to the passenger. In turn will force the passengers to look for other cheaper transport alternatives or budget airlines. The rise of budget airlines has become a threat to the existing national carriers, compelling them to pull down prices as well due to competition without compromising the top-quality customer service or airplane maintenance. To maintain its position ahead of its competitions, SIA  also established its own brand of budget airline, Scoot. SIA additionally builds its shareholdings to the minimal effort transporter Tiger quality of Southeast Asia despite the fact that it offers no sensible benefit. With increasing competition, the demand on each employee, stewards, pilots and grounds personnel are increasingly becoming stiff. The expectations on the airlines and airport are higher. Passenger safety and avoidance of accidents and whilst maintaining is efficient deliverables are those basic prerequisites for airlines to maintain a good profile. A slight error can be fatal. For example, there was fallout total passengers in the Malaysian Airline despite a huge drop to ticket prices because of the recent disappearance of the Malaysian Airline.

Social Factors Affecting SIA

In the past, travelling by air is a privilege accorded to the wealthy. With Singapore’s economic rise and betterment of citizen’s living standards, more Singaporeans can afford overseas travels for holiday or work related. Increasing number of competitive airlines also forces Low-cost enabling more Singaporeans to be able to afford travelling overseas. For example, the rise of low-cost carriers sees a shift in consumer preferences, with consumers preferring to “travel light”, eliminating services the passenger may find unnecessary lowering ticket prices further. With a more inclusive way to travel, connecting people across national boundaries are no longer a tedious matter. With increased connectivity, most people able to travel freely promoting cultural exchanges as well as economic activities.

 

 

Technological Factors Affecting SIA

Over the years, air travel was regard as technologically impossible for mankind. However, with invention of the Wright Brothers and the airplane’s subsequent innovations – air travel and air power has taken a centre stage in human development. Controlling the air as both economic and military advantages. Since then, technological advances has centred on pilot and passenger safety, reduction of CO2 emissions, noise reduction and most importantly, reduced fuel consumption. The Concorde is the fastest commercial airplane ever invented. However, due to its limitations on maintenance and costs of operation, the Concorde may not be seen as the most economical form of travel for most airline companies. The productions from Airbus and Boeing still corner the market in airline manufacture acting as a duopoly. Through recent years however, a company SpaceX by its CEO Elon Musk is also exploring ways to travel between countries in less than 30 minutes in the concept he proposes in late 2017 as rocket flight.  However, there still in the test stages should be commercialised one day, alternative can be a threat of substitute for airplanes.

Environmental Factors Affecting SIA

SIA has thought about the environmental preservation and has carry out all the possible to bring down global warming. However shown the workers to be earth mindful in their regular assignments. The business intends to get air ship that does not deliver much carbon dioxide that dependably prompts ecological corruption. There is additionally an arrangement to cut down the noise pollution made by the planes that utilizing productive fuel and also getting rid of out-dated equipment.

 

Legal Factors Affecting the SIA

Airlines work across different national boundaries subject to the national as well as international political peculiarities. The Airline industry in Singapore is highly regulated and policed. With the Singapore Airport being the foremost Airport in the World, operational efficiency and quality of deliverables are benchmarked against high standards. The industry always favour the passengers over the airlines, and thus high customer-oriented approach. Therefore, one of the main contributions to this fast development the Singapore government offers huge support to the industry regarding tax and fuel as it is the principal shareholder of the Airline (Scott, 2005). This form of support and favourable taxes allowed the airline to make more profit as compared to other airlines competing in Singapore. The Singapore government’s flight regulations are respected by the industry while attempting to broaden their operations abroad in this manner and avoid all danger that may occur on their way. For example, the Airline hauls out its offer for a stake in Air India because of India’s political obstruction.

(1)   Threat of new entrants – High

            There are two threats of new entrants, in particular the development of no-frills or low-cost carriers, the rapid rail venture connecting the Singapore up to China. There was a stiff competition from different airways due to l to low flight prices as compared to Singapore airways. Most customers are price conscious and prefer travelling with cheaper airlines to save their money for other purposes. To end to this problem, the industry must come with a strategy to lower their prices for comparable to the smaller emerging airlines industry (PwC, 2014).

 

The encompassing international location inside the North Asia such as China, Korea, Malaysia and Thailand have upped their well known infrastructure and offerings their airport facility, fees and guide. For this reason, the air carriers or passengers has greater demand for consolation and amount of time to reach the destination and almost similar with the imminent Singapore Malaysia excessive speed rail task. However , SIA have acquired Scoot as the low cost carrier arm of its flight business in order to stay in the business through this secondary company. 

 

(2)   Competitive rivalry within an industry – High

            There is a big competition within the Singapore Airline industry because of its market strength. The merging confederations in global airline industries in America and Europe led to the decrease of prices which compelled the Singapore Airline industry to follow suit. The main revenue of SIA is from passengers; therefore, if the airplanes must go with several seats unsold every now and then, this will post a huge loss to the company in potential revenue per trip.

(3)   Threats of substitute products or services – Moderate

            The threat of substitute goods or services to the Singapore Airline industry is reasonably moderate. Globalization has made other means of transportation to be as a preference by people thus to convenience and becoming alternative for air transport. A lot of people use marine or road services for short distance journey between Singapore and Indonesia. With the invention of an electric train, the industry might face stiff competition from rail transportation in time to come. This however, may not necessarily post a threat of a complete elimination of the airline industry; people will still want to travel by air for leisure and ease of transition.

(4)   Bargaining power of suppliers – High

            Internationally, there are just two companies that supply planes, and they are Airbus and Boeing. So, it becomes comparative to bargain for price reduction or maintenance parts replacement from other companies as both Airbus and Boeing have high bargaining power compared to the buyers who have no choice but to comply with the fixed price set (Teresa, 2014). This cost of switching from Airbus to Boeing can also post a high capital outlay on the part of the airline. Unless other aircraft manufacturing companies come up to display rivalry, the trouble will stay agitated by the industry . But the Canada’s Bombardier is expected to become the largest C Series customer and will bring an end to the Airbus and Boeing duopoly (Gillian, 2016).

(5)   Bargaining power of consumers – Moderate

             The bargaining power of consumers in the Singapore Airlines industry or any airline, in general, is relatively moderate, and switching of costs between carriers is low (Teresa, 2014). There has been an effort to grow the changing cost to hold customers and keep up a key separation from wastage of time and inconveniences caused by customers.

Conclusion

SIA has endured many challenges throughout the years since its infancy. We have seen, the impact of crew well-being and Pilot’s Union’s strike, Singapore Government’s interventions, market threats from the growths of low-cost carriers which to-date have continued to put pressure to the industry compelling SIA to act and give up on the profit margins. Through market segmentation and increasing stakes in low-cost carriers. SIA has purchased more planes and has partnered with Australia and India to enlarge its environmental Market segmentation and SIA’s operations to measure up with other greater competitors in the business. It has also volunteered to take the partially-owned Tiger Airways Holdings Limited to be entirely private and get ready for premium economy seats and cheaper fares due to declining oil prices (Anurag, 2016).

The industry carrying out thorough market research on the grounds to find out the taste and preference of customers, to maximise its profits and remain the preferred airline industry. SIA is going for modern aircraft with great comfort as well as security assurance to the passengers. The aircraft also have advanced technological developments which entice customers as compared to the other airline industries. With relations both Airbus and Boeing amongst its fleet, SIA reduced reliance on downtime. The Singapore Airline industry must continue to engage the government in their daily operations to benefit from the government regulations such as lowering the taxation rate to the industry (Scott, 2005).