Relations and Strategies



Anubhav Joshi










India’s current Geo
political relation with China











motivated for choosing the study



and Nature












for the future






motivated for choosing the study

India and
China have been deemed as among the fastest growing nations in the world . Both
of these countries have seen growth which no other country has seen in recent
times. However, where there is duopoly there is bound to be competition . Not
just competition, there has also been instances when India and China have been
enemies and fought battles. However there have been occasions when both of
these countries have helped each other out . To conclude one can say that the
Indo-China relationship is somewhat bitter sweet . This unique dynamism and
volatility of this relationship urged me to take up this subject . Also, the fact
that in coming times, India and China will be the hubs for business on the
globe . This prediction of them being the future of business has instigated me
to dwell further into the topic as it may come handy for me in the future.
Another reason for choosing Indo-Chinese relationship is its constant
reiteration in the Indian mediafor various tensions on the line of Actual
Control . Thus, these reasons justify why I have chosen to study the
complicated Indo-China relationship.


Origin and

The origin
of the Sino-Indian relationship dates back to the time of the Silk Route which
highly pushed the trade relations to kick off between the two countries. The
silk route was also a main cause for the spread of Buddhism in the two
countries. China’s opium trade with the east India company was famous but also
troublesome as it led to the first and the second opium wars.

The nature
of the relationship as mentioned above is highly competitive. The competitive
nature can be contributed for the fact that they are among the oldest
civilizations of the world and are usually pitted against one another. Also,
there humongous size and population give them a sense of similarity. Since both
the countries are second world countries and have this urge to develop , they
are often conflicted in their opinions. These conflicts have led to military
action on three occasions namely in 1962, 1967 and 1987 . There also have been
regular breach of the Line of Actual Control from both the sides leading to
skirmishes and political tension between the two countries.


Title- India and China : conflict and

Date-March, 2010

Author- David M Malone and Rohan Mukherjee



Not much has changed in the rhetoric of
Sino-Indian relations since Mao Zedong, speaking in 1951 in honour of the first
anniversary of India’s constitution, declared that ‘excellent friendship’ had
existed between the two countries ‘for thousands of years’.1 Yet few of the
lofty proclamations made by Indian and Chinese leaders over the years truly
reflect the reality of relations between the neighbours. It is surprising that
two states with such a rich and sometimes fractious history, including a border
conflict in 1962, should have what appears to be a largely reactive
relationship. But neither has developed a grand strategy with regard to the
other. An unshakeable and largely unprofitable preoccupation with the past on
the Indian side, and an equally intense preoccupation with domestic
consolidation on the Chinese side, have left the relationship under-tended. It
might best be seen as one of geostrategic competition qualified by growing
commercial cooperation. And there is some asymmetry: China is a more fraught
subject in Indian national debates than India is for China. China does not
appear to feel threatened in any serious way by India, while India at times
displays tremendous insecurity in the face of Chinese economic success and
military expansion.


Title- Cooperation
without Trust- Indo- Chinese relationship today

Date- Nov 30, 2013

Author-  AR Nalpathamkalam



The first of them takes a “realist” point of
view, arguing that each of the two emerging powers would fight for dominance in
the Asian continent. It tends to describe relations between the two countries
as hostile. This could even lead to military confrontation between the two
nations, or at least to an even greater militarization of the region (Roy 2011,
Banyan 2012, The Economist 2012). War is only contained because both countries
have nuclear weapons and are increasing and modernizing their capabilities in
conventional warfare. India belongs to the group of major importers of military
technology. The second school of thought takes a liberal perspective, viewing
China and India as two major emerging markets in a more and more interdependent
world, where trade and commerce sustain peaceful coexistence. Observing the
Indian media it seems that the “China threat” theory dominates in most news
broadcasts (Banyan 2012).


                Title-  Sino Indian Relations : Complex
Challenges in a Complex Relation

Date-  22 june,2012

Author- Johan Svensson



China and India, demographically
being the two largest countries in the world, are together accounting for more
than a third of the world’s total population. This makes the Sino-Indian
relationship critical not only for those living in China and India, but for the
whole world. Regardless of a history filled with conflicts and a contemporary
competition over regional influence have the two Asian powers managed to
increasingly deepen their economic ties. Even though the relationship seems to
be moving in a more peaceful direction of mutual understanding and cooperation,
it is still a very fragile relationship. The focus of this research lies in the
contemporary Sino-Indian relations, which aims to understand the role trade and
cooperation have had in moving the attention away from security-related issues
on to more positive fields. The empirical observations that will be tested in
the case of Sino-Indian relations are the border dispute at Arunachal Pradesh
and the political and economic interdependence. Together these will represent
the empirical foundation of the research, which will be tested and interpreted
by the neo-realist and neo-liberal perspective. The concluding remarks on the
research is that trade and cooperation unlikely is the main factor in the
Sino-Indian relationship, preventing or reducing attention from being given to
securityrelated issues, but should rather be seen as the foundational source on
which a process towards confidence-building measures, institutions, mutual
interests and goodwill has been established.


Title – Future of India – China relations:
challenges and prospects

Date-  June,2010

Author- A Kumar

Website- file:///C:/Users/ss/Downloads/28096-28115-1-PB.PDF

The ongoing debate on India-China
relations among the members of strategic and academic community has raised a number
of issues including the future prospects and the major challenges confronting
the bilateral relationships. The last six decades of India-China relationships
have seen more of mutual mistrust and suspicion than friendliness and cordial
atmosphere. Such mutual mistrust and suspicion grew over the years and have
gone beyond proportions in the current context. The challenge has always been
to bridge the differences of opinion from both sides and reach to a common
understanding on a number of sensitive issues including Sino-Indian border
issues. At the same time, one should not come to the conclusion that both India
and China have always been at loggerheads. A series of serious attempts have
been made by both India and China to bridge the differences more particularly
on the border issue. India and China relations are expanding and deepening
despite several divergences on many pertinent issues impacting the bilateral
relations. The deepening of relations was reflected when the two countries
established the Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity
in 2005 and also signed A Shared Vision for 21st Century in 2008. Undoubtedly,
India and China have emerged as the two rapidly growing economies and their
bilateral relationship to a greater extent has assumed global and strategic
relevance. It would be important to introspect India – China experience in the
past and then explore the mechanisms by which the bilateral cooperation can
take a robust shape. The objective of this paper will be to assess and analyze
the broad contours of India-China relations and explore the areas on which both
the countries can work together on mutual interests. The trajectory of
bilateral relationship has many positive as well as negative connotations. It
would highlight both the convergences and divergences and then suggest ways by
which the existing divergences can be bridged. It would also try and explain
the rationale for a robust and constructive engagement.


China – India: An analysis of the Himalayan territorial dispute


Author-  Katherine Richards



This paper examines the dispute
between China and India over their shared Himalayan border. It assesses that
the likelihood of a major Sino-Indian conflict over the border is remote,
notwithstanding the ever-present possibility of limited skirmishes and
territorial forays. It argues that there are significant constraining factors
that will limit military assertiveness and the effects of miscalculation by
either side for the foreseeable future. The paper concludes that the current
strategic stalemate along the ‘roof of the world’ will continue to result in a
relatively stable but tense security status quo. However, it also notes that an
ongoing, seemingly intractable dispute between the two most populated countries
in the world is not conducive to longer-term regional stability

Current Situation

The current situation between the two countries can be described
as somewhat problematic . With no shades of exactly black and exactly white,
one may conclude that the relationship between the two countries is somewhere
in the grey region. With a huge trade imbalance between the two countries and
great infrastructure and ammunition around the border , there is tension
between the governments in Beijing and New Delhi. There is also the intense
competition between the two economies to capture the global environment which
only makes the situation worse and hostile.

Lessons Learned

Among the
many other lessons leaarned the jist and the most important one which came
across to me was that it is very important for India and China toget along. It
is very important for them to be at peace with each other in order to prosper
and grow accordingly . A tiff between these two countries might not just put
world peace in a perilious state but may also hamper world economic growth and
development . Thus, the diplomatic relationship between the two countries is a
major tie to be maintained for the entire world.

for the Future

The only
logical way forward according to me is that of peace . The governments should
sort out matters like Myanmar, Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh and move towards
integration. Efforts should also be made to start cuturals programs between the
two countries. Efforts should also be made to sort out the trade imbalance between
the two countries.