CLIMATE CHANGE: THE REAL DANGER HUMANS ARE FACING
RIGHT HERE, RIGHT NOW

 

 

 

EDITED
BY

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Name               :
Yanti Herliani Hermawan

NPM               :
120310170052

Major               : Management

 

FACULTY OF
ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS

PADJADJARAN
UNIVERSITY

 

SUMEDANG

 

2018

ABSTRACT

 

CLIMATE CHANGE:
THE REAL DANGER HUMANS ARE FACING RIGHT HERE, RIGHT NOW

 

If there is one universal
problem that not any single country is not experiencing—it has to be climate
change. It does leave serious impact on every country in this planet, from
developing countries to developed countries. Sure, our dear planet has been
through some changes since it was formed; but now is quite different. In
today’s world, natural forcing is not alone when it comes to affecting the
changing of the world; humans—too—take
part in this situation now.

Climate change, as we can
see now, has made major problems from rising temperatures in almost all parts
of the world; droughts and heat waves in some countries; to intense natural
disasters. All these things can only mean one thing: if we do nothing, we
cannot stop our world from facing environmental catastrophe. Small changes from
one party would not make any significant difference; therefore newer and bigger
approaches need to be done by all parties of the world to keep the human
civilization far from danger.

One of the most essential
things humankind can do is change their environmentally toxic behavior by
making rules—legal rules for that matter. Government around the world has power
to control the country they are ruling. Enforcing laws regarding climate action
would be one step ahead in preventing farther damages the climate change has
caused.

It does not necessarily mean
that we, as a normal civilian, cannot do something to take part in making the
world a slightly better place. Every action counts; does not matter the
size of said action is.
The most important thing is to do all of these changes together, simultaneously
that making our planet smile again would not be something humankind cannot
reach.

 

Keywords:
climate change,
climate action,
government, laws

PREFACE

 

Bismillahirrahmaanirrahiim

All praise to Allah Swt. for
His favors and His blessings, the assignment “Climate Change: The Real Danger
Humans Are Facing Right Here, Right Now” can be done in time without any major
difficulties. This assignment was made as a mean of completing TPB courses at
Padjadjaran University.

Therefore, I would like
thank and appreciate to all respect lecturers at Padjadjaran University for
providing us the course regarding seventeen themes of the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) and for those who have contributed with the completion
of this assignment.

The aim of this paper is to
spread awareness to all about the importance of taking immediate action
regarding the event of climate change that is currently happening in the world.
Hopefully, this paper—at the very least—can provide better understanding about
what our planet is facing and urge the readers to implement even the smallest
change possible.

Nothing is ever perfect; and
this paper is not an exception. There may be some grammatical errors; incoherent paragraphs; or any kind of misinformation. Therefore,
I highly appreciate constructive criticism or any suggestion from the readers.
If there are rooms for some improvement; kindly let me know.

 

Bandung, 10 January 2018

Author,

 

 

Yanti Herliani Hermawan

TABLE OF
CONTENTS

Abstract
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..   i

Preface
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….   ii

Table
of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………………….   iii

Chapter
I: Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………   1

      1.1.      Background Information …………………………………………………………………………….   1

      1.2.      Components Overview ……………………………………………………………………………….   2

      1.3.      Purpose Statements ……………………………………………………………………………………   2

Chapter
II: Main Discussion ………………………………………………………………………………..   3

      2.1.      The Visible and Observable Effects of Climate Change
………………………………….   3

      2.2.      The Main Causes of Climate Change…………………………………………………………….   5

      2.3.      How Government and International Organizations React
to Climate Change ……   6

      2.4.      Possible Solutions to Combat Climate Change
………………………………………………   7

Chapter
III: Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………   8

      3.1.      Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………..   8

      3.2.      Suggestion ………………………………………………………………………………………………..   8

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….   9

Chapter I

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1.  Background
Information

Climate
change is happening. The event that no country—no one—could escape from. Lies if we say the impacts are not
significant or if we take constant change of weather patterns and rising sea level as common events to
happen. Nothing can justify assumptions stated above especially when actual,
real people are experiencing the impacts rather badly.

There is no
denying the fact that the Earth is warming; temperatures are considerably
higher than the past centuries. Other visible signs of this bizarre phenomenon
are extreme weather, rising sea level, more droughts, intense frequency of heat
waves, even genetic mutations.

It comes as
no surprise that the main findings show human activities contribute to the
increasing heat of the Earth—particularly greenhouse gas emissions like carbon
dioxide (CO2); and population growth which increases the use of land
(National Research Council, 2011). Natural disasters
have become more dangerous and have caused major destruction across the globe.

Since
climate change affects a huge—if not all—aspects of human’s life: be it
economics, education, health, or environment in general; it means that climate
change also takes part in damaging the human rights. Government and
governmental organizations, of course, have made some policies regarding the
concern. Indonesia’s ideology, Pancasila, even emphasizes the meaning of
justice for all.

Immediate
actions are to be expected considering the result of one of the impacts of
climate change—say, global warming—alone is vital to the continuation of
mankind. And not to mention that it is partly our responsibility too since
scientific reports have showed human activities also in charge of pulling the
trigger and make the environment worse.

Government
can only initiate the laws and policies for the better world; but it is us who
can make it a reality by helping government achieve people’s desires. We need
to work together; no matter what one’s profession is, we can do something to
make our planet a little appropriate for breathing and living.

 

1.2.  Components
Overview

1.      The Visible and Observable Effects of Climate Change

2.      The Main Causes of Climate Change

3.      How Government and International Organizations React
to Climate Change

4.      Possible Solutions to Combat Climate Change

 

1.3.  Purpose
Statements

1.      To inform readers about general idea about climate
change.

2.      To raise awareness regarding the effects of climate
change.

3.      To understand better the legal aspect of climate
actions.

4.      To understand the importance of taking urgent actions
along with the government.

5.      To be able to make a difference—even the slightest—to
help the world from getting worse by a catastrophically damaging environment.

Chapter II

MAIN DISCUSSION

 

2.1.  The Visible and Observable Effects
of Climate Change

The Earth’s
climate is in evolution; first and foremost, emissions from greenhouse gases
such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are some of the factors why it can be happened.
Human activities make the concentration of those gases increases within short
time; more carbon dioxide is produced from the act of burning fossil fuels used
in normal vehicles like cars and motorbikes and more methane is produced from
many food producing sectors—namely companies in the agriculture.

The extreme
heat causes ice to melt at the poles and on mountaintops and eventually makes
sea level raises and triggers many kinds of natural disasters. Higher degrees
of temperatures and unpredictable weather patterns can be even more severe in
the future. Who knows some parts of the world may become uninhabitable at some
point because of this.

Now, health
risks are as serious as environmental risks. Even though there is a need to
better understanding the linkage between climate change and health, one thing
to remember is that it is—no doubt—has connection. Climate change makes it
harder for some people, especially people who live in the drought prone
countries, to even get fresh water for drinking. Of course, that is only a
simple example.

There are
three ways climate change affects human’s health: 1) direct effects such as
rising temperatures, changing weather patterns, and weather-related phenomena
such as storms; 2) indirect effects such as derived diseases caused by the
ever-changing weather and climate; and 3) derived effects through some
disruptions by human activities such as poor food distribution which would
cause under nutrition to some people (UNFCCC. Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA),
2017).

This fact
only exacerbates existing problems especially for those who live less fortunate
than the average of us. In our country, our ideology Pancasila has stated two
main points—although almost all points can also be applied—regarding the human
rights. The first point represented in Sila no. 2 which states:

Picture source: (MchEffendi Blog, 2017)

Sila no. 2
means that every human being has to value justice and behaves accordingly in order to make peace and not cause any
harms to others. This applies to current situation about climate change where a
lot of people are continuously contributing to the massive event without even realizing. They are not
aware that their everyday life actions may affect others in the most horrible
way.

Things like
driving private cars to work, eating meat on a daily basis, turning on AC in
the not-so-hot places, and wearing spray deodorants may not seem like a big
deal—if anything, no one would actually care. But those little things that one
does every single day definitely add up throughout time—and not to mention,
times billions of people across the world.

Another
Sila that somehow has a connection about this issue is Sila no. 5, which
states:

Picture source: (MchEffendi Blog, 2017)

Similar to
Sila no. 2, this one states that social justice must be obtained by all of
Indonesians—regardless of age, profession, race, and religion. In order to
reach social justice for all, in terms of healthy and inhabitable environment,
general rules and policies must be obeyed and followed. Small changes by all
parties can make a huge difference.

 

2.2.  The
Main Causes of Climate Change

It has long
been reported that one of the main causes of climate change has something to do
with human activities; approximately six billion tons of carbon escapes from
Earth surface to the sky each year just from the burning of fossil fuels (Bodansky, 1993). That, for sure, is
relevant in the 90s and early 2000s. Think about it today, where
industrialization has become more and more common. The sky is more carbon
concentrated than ever before.

Although
the effect of greenhouse gas is supposed to be normal and not taken seriously
because the phenomenon is somehow naturally-occurring—like the water vapor and
other gases which absorb radiation and heat from the sun and reallocate it
towards the Earth and therefore keeping it from freezing; it becomes a little
problematic when the concentration is increasing exponentially.

Gases that
contribute to the occurring of global warming are water vapor (H2O)
with the most capacity compared to others but also the most natural and
important gas since it makes the process of precipitation possible and also acts as feedbacks (which means the gas responds to changes
in temperature both in physical and chemical ways); nitrous oxide (N2O)
which produced by mainly agriculture activities such as soil cultivation,
production of nitric acid, and burning of biomass; methane (CH4)
which can be produced either by natural sources such as living beings’
digestion or by human activities such as agriculture activities; carbon dioxide
(CO2) which actually not so much in terms of capacity but humans
make it more concentrated by activities like land use, deforestation—that
ironically is still one of Indonesia’s most common not-so-natural disasters to
date—and also the classic burning fossil fuels; and lastly, there is
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are made possible by industrialization and
have caused the ozone layer to be destructed (NASA, 2018).

If we were
to talk about other things other than greenhouse gases; then we talk about
environmentally damaging behaviors. How many of us still throw away trash
irresponsibly anywhere? Seems simple, but still, that kind of behavior cannot
be ignored. Throwing trash into the water stream or even into the sea can
actually kill the ecosystem living inside of it—not only the fish, but also the whole habitat.

2.3.  How
Government and International Organizations React to Climate Change

Without
proper and immediate actions towards climate change, no one—not even the most
powerful people in the world—can do to prevent the world from going radically
shattered. But together, we and the government—if making the climate change
stop seems impossible—can at least limit the possible effects of climate change
to the slightest.

In Indonesia,
there are several policies and legal rules about the aim of the government to
make the country more environmental-friendly. In UUD 1945 stated in Article 28H
Section 1 that everyone—literally every single one person in the country—has
the right to live, has shelter, and gets good
and healthy environment, and gets health service.

Picture
source: (JDIH Badan POM, 2018)

Not only
that, the government has also made legal policies about how corporates should
behave. In UUD 1945 Article 33 Section 4 specifically, it is stated that
national economy has to be done with taking into accounts some of the aspects
showed below, which can be seen that one aspect is of course being
environmentally-knowledgeable and also being sustainable—both are equally
important.

It is not
only Indonesia that has taken the case of environment seriously, the world has
also made various laws that work in a much broader spectrum—internationally.
The United Nations, for instance, has addressed the issue of climate change by
ratifying the Paris Agreement on December 12, 2015 in Paris with so many
countries involved in making changes to help reduce emissions and make the
world a better place (United Nations, 2018).

2.4.  Possible
Solutions to Combat Climate Change

There are
so many ways that we as humans can do to prevent our dear planet from dying—or
sweating too much. And that being more responsible about what we do on the
regular can actually rise the percentage of seeing our future generations happy
without being tortured by the heat of the sun.

Always
remember that one cannot do this alone, every one, every firm, every government
in the world needs to work side by side and help one another. There is
no room for arguing whether this is the right thing to do or whether now is the
right time to do it. If those things are still in mind, then the answer is
simply yes. Yes, it is the right thing to do because we cannot just ignore
those who already suffer from the direct and indirect effects of climate
change. And yes, now is the exact time to start making changes because we
cannot wait until humans are just names—by all means extinct because the planet
has become too hot to even breathe.

We can help
the government by obeying and following the environment-related rules and
policies. Now, firms have to work even harder to develop technologies that are
friendly to the environment so that they would not pollute the already polluted
world and—hopefully—they will start to recover the world from all kinds of
contaminations.

Climate
change is not something to be afraid of. Nor something one party should be
blamed for. It is our responsibility merely as humans. Climate change is rather
something we need to work on together. Befriend nature, befriend the
environment, and befriend the natural things that are supposed to happen. For
it is our only shelter, our dear aging Earth is in danger.

 

Chapter III

CONCLUSION

 

3.1.  Conclusion

Climate
change cannot be avoided as it is already happening before us. Some people may
not be well-informed about the phenomenon and therefore, it is us who are
responsible in making the first move to save the world. We are not super
humans; we cannot save the world alone. We need team work. We need to agree on
one thing: that leaving the world as it is now would not make it any better.

Constitutions,
laws, rules—both legal or not, policies, and agreements are merely just a tool.
A tool that the makers wish for a change. If we—the actual users of the
tool—refuse to use it then what is the point of making those rules? At the end
of the day, all parts of the big community living on Earth need to synergize;
to be one whole of hope.

If it is
not us who start to be aware of current climate problems, then will there still
be “us” in the future?

 

3.2.  Suggestion

As there
are noticeably obvious actions both firms and the governments can do such as
developing new environmental-friendly technologies and ratifying more strategic
laws and policies; the real approach that even normal civilian can do to help
take care of the planet is simple. The first thing we need to do is to be aware. Be aware that our
world is not the same as 50, 100, 1000 years ago. Be aware that our world today
is “sick”. Sick from too much heat that we cause. From our everyday behavior,
adjust the things that we can adjust; whether it is switching from private
vehicle to a more carbon-free bicycle, or not throwing away trash to the river
and sidewalks. The key here is to do something. One thing at a time. Because
what really counts is our commitment, our perseverance towards better change.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Bodansky, D. (1993). The United
Nations Framework Convension on Climate Change: A Commentary. Yale Journal
of International Law Volume 18, 453.
JDIH Badan POM. (2018). Undang-Undang Dasar Negara
Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945. Retrieved January 11, 2018, from JDIH
Badan Pom: http://jdih.pom.go.id/
MchEffendi Blog. (2017, March 22). Contoh Sikap yang
Mencerminkan Nilai-nilai Pancasila. Retrieved January 11, 2018, from
MchEffendi Blog:
Contoh Sikap yang Mencerminkan Nilai-nilai Pancasila
NASA. (2018). Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet:
Causes. Retrieved January 11, 2018, from NASA Global Climate Change:
https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/
National Research Council. (2011). Climate Stabilization
Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia.
Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
UNFCCC. Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological
Advice (SBSTA). (2017). Human Health and Adaptation: Undestanding Climate
Impacts on Health and Opportunities for Action. Geneva: United Nations.
United Nations. (2018). Sustainable Development Goals:
Goal 13 Climate Action. Retrieved January 11, 2018, from United Nations:
http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-change-2
 

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