Assessment methods and measures in Positive Psychology.
The Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6)
The gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6) (McCullough, B., Emmons, R. & Tsang, J., 2002) is a short, self-document questionnaire that assesses a person’s disposition toward gratitude. This degree holds extraordinary internal reliability. There is additionally giant proof displaying how the GQ-6 relates to optimism, hope, spirituality, existence delight, empathy, religiousness, forgiveness, and so many more variables that contribute to our happiness.
The Flourishing scale (FS)
The Flourishing Scale (FS), (Diener, Wirtz, Tov, Kim-Prieto, Choi, Oishi, & Biswas-Diener, 2009), is an eight-object degree of perceived success in social relationships, competence in important activities, purpose and meaning in life, hobby and engagement in pastimes in addition to self-recognize and optimism. It presents an outline of the respondent’s superb functioning across one of a kind areas and contexts.
The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE)
The Scale of Positive and negative Experience (SPANE). (Diener et al 2009) changed into designed to evaluate subjective feelings of nicely being and ill-being. This 12-item questionnaire includes six items to assess tremendous feelings and six gadgets to evaluate poor emotions. For each the fantastic and bad items, three of the items are well known (e.g., tremendous, negative) and three in step with subscale are more unique (e.g., blissful, sad). For that reason, a respondent may want to rating at an intermediate level on the dimensions no matter feeling tremendous all of the time. A person who feels good all the time must no longer be categorized as glad because he or she studies only some of the questions indexed. Similarly, a person who is sad and irritated all the time should be considered very sad despite the fact that he or she never reports fear or strain, or the opposite bad feelings listed on the scale.
The Brief Resilience Scale
The Brief Resilience Scale, is a self-document, questionnaire which measures individual’s potential to get better from adversity .it’s been utilized in medical populace but it is able to offer some key insights for individual’s with health associated stress.it include six items, 3 undoubtedly worded gadgets and three negatively worded items. All six relate to the character’s capacity to bounce back from adversity. Maximum resilience measure was advanced, researched and used in the West and whilst the scales are applied to the non-Western population, it is far imperative to take into account the internal consistency and validity.
The Adult Hope Scale (AHS)
The Adult Hope Scale (AHS), (Snyder, et al., 1996) is related to learned optimism, optimism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, where greater hope is linked to better performance outcomes and a sense of competence resulting in greater satisfaction with life
The Mental Health continuum short Form (MHC-SF)
The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF; Keyes, 2002) assess the mental, emotional, and social well-being of individuals. The MHC-SF consists of 14 items, iii items have been elected (happy, fascinated among life, then satisfied) after represent pathological well-being, six items (one item beyond every concerning the 6 dimensions) had been elect after represent psychological well-being, and 5 items (one object from every of the 5 dimensions) have been selected according to represent neighborly well-being. To stay diagnosed with rising intellectual health, persons should ride ‘every day’ and ‘almost every day’ at least certain regarding the hedonic well–being then at least vii over the eleven symptoms regarding superb functioning during the past month)
The satisfaction with Life
The satisfaction with Life (SWLS: Denier, Emmons, Lasens & Griffin 1985) is used to assess the components of cognitive of subjective wellbeing. It consists five items which evaluates the persons’ contrast of pleasure along life in general, example (I am satisfied with my life) responses varies from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (Strongly disagree) of every question. The study has established appropriate psychometric properties of the SWLS and reliability by means of consistency within the population was satisfactory (Denier et. al., 1985)
The Happiness measure
The measure assesses emotive welfare then affords a suggestion of a character external happiness; it additionally assesses the affective element concerning subjective well-being.
The Satisfaction with life Scale
It assesses the cognitive component of SWB and offers a combined judgement of how a person’s life as a whole is going.
The Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale
The Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale (TSWLS), (Pavot, Diener, & Suh, 1998), It assesses the past, present and future of life satisfaction, thus how person’s life entire has gone, going and will go.
The subjective happiness Scale
It measures the emotional and cognitive components of SWB, thus it assesse the SWB as a whole.
The Authentic Self Inventory (ASI) (Kernis & Goldman, 2005) is used to assess the level of authenticity of the repondents.the survey aimed to measure four elements of sincerity namely: awareness, unbiased processing, conduct and then interaction orientation. The survey consists of 44 item who are rated over a Likert scale ranging beyond 1(strongly agree) according to 5 (strongly disagree).Kernis or Goldman (2005) observed the inside consistency or reliability of the land survey which ranges beside 0.64to 0.90
The Meaning in Life Questionnaire
The Meaning of Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Steger, Frazier, Oishi, & Kaler, 2006), assesses two dimensions of the meaning of life. These being the presence of meaning and the search for significance, this questionnaire is an effective measure of life satisfaction as the presence of meaning is positively related to subjective well-being. For the conative aspect of human functioning assessment, the following scales can be used and make use of the Likert-type response format.
The Life Orientation Test –Revised
It assesses individual differences in generalized optimism against pessimism. It can be used on developmental, emotional and health consequences of these personality variables.
Subjective Vitality Scale
Subjective Vitality Scale (SHS), (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, Griffin, 1985), It assesses the state of feeling active and watchful, having vitality available to the self. Being alive and energetic is part of what is means to be fully functioning and psychological well.
Scale of Psychological Wellbeing
The measurement consists regarding 18 items or adjunct about statements reflecting the six areas on psychological well-being, which are, personal growth, positive relations including others, then purpose of life, environmental mastery, autonomy or self-acceptance.
The Social Well- Being Scale (Kokko, Korkalainen, Lyrra & Feldt, 2013) is a litigation over an interpersonal measurement that assesses of the associative yet societal level. This 15-item metering is based totally over Keyes, (2002) model that shows good consisting about emotional, psychological yet communal elements. Keyes, (2002) lists communal acceptance, unity, integration, involvement yet actualization as the most important factors of neighborly well-being. Peterson & Seligman, (2004).
The Positive and Negative affect
The Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6)
The gratitude questionnaire (GQ-6).The GQ-6 is a short questionnaire that assesses a person disposition towards gratitude.
This measure holds excellent internal reliability with scores between.82 .87.there is also considerable evidences how that GQ-6 relates to optimism, hope, spirituality, life satisfaction, empathy, forgiveness and so many variables, which contributes to our happiness. Other methods of increasing or developing gratitude is by meant of giving the respondents activities whereby they list things and people they are grateful about and rate them according to importance. (Mc McCullough et al 2002) found that the validity for the gratitude questionnaire is strong, it shows similar correlation with similar measure, it correlates moderately with satisfaction with life (.53).Vitality (.46) and Lambert et al 2009 used Optimism (.51) .The measure was used in South Eastern university public university on undergraduates.
Emmons and Crumpler (2000) define gratitude “as positive emotional response to a perceived benefit bestowed by another”. Gratitude expands the positives in life, and has positive impact on well-being, intrapersonal relationships and psychosocial behavior, Bartlett and DeSteno 2006); Tsang 2006).In their research Kerr, O’Donovan & Pepping (2014) found that “gratitude and kindness intervention increased clients’ sense of connectedness with others to a significantly greater degree than a placebo intervention” when people display gratitude in their lives it can also increase optimism and greater satisfaction in life.
According to the influential study by McCullough et al. (2002), the following can be concluded about grateful people “Grateful people appear to be different from their less grateful counterparts in three interesting psychological domains: (a) emotionality/well-being, (b) prosociality, and (c) spirituality/religiousness… people with stronger dispositions toward gratitude tend to be more spiritually and religiously minded”.
I chose this assessment as I have observed that many people complain about things that go wrong in their lives and forget to be grateful of what the challenges teach them. In my current work, everyone is complaining about how the institution is not giving them refreshments during workshops, shortage of staff and other things. This has affected their morale and how they render services to our clients. They feel like the company owe them and that they are doing it favor whereas is the other way round. My aim is to assist them to develop gratefulness, as it will improve their well-being as Mc McCullough proved in his research. I understand that companies are going through financial strains in South Africa, however we must be thankful that we are still employed .When I look around me ,I see lot of people who are unemployed, don’t have family and no shelter but they appreciate the little they have. Some of us have liberty to decide where we want to live, which car to drive and which best schools are suitable for our children education but other people do not have these options.
I think when people are grateful on good and bad things their lives, it will be easier for them to bounce back after facing diversity for example when one sick can still be thankful that they are alive and have hope that they will be well again. Furthermore, it will also remind us how privileged we are, as some people do not have what we have for example good health, jobs, children and so on.
Bartlett, M.Y., & DeSteno, D. (2006) Gratitude and prosocial behavior: Helping when it costs you. Psychological Science, 1794) 319-325.DOI:10.111/j.1467-9280.2006.01705.x.
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Dienier, R. (2009) New measure of well-being: Flourishing and positive and negative feelings: Social Indicators Research, 39,277-226.
Emmons, R.A., & Crumpler, C.A. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1) 56-69.doi:10.1521/jscp.126.96.36.199.
http://www.achrn.org/quantitative_methods.htm. Acessed date: 08 July 2017
Kerr, S.L., O’Donovan, A., & Pepping, C.A. (2014).Can Gratitude and Kindness Interventions Enhance wellbeing in a Clinical sample? Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9492-1
Keyes, C.L., (2002).The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of health and behavior Research, 43,207-222 Lambert, N.M., Braithwaiter, S.C., Fincham, F.D., Graham, S.M., Beach, S.R.H. (2009) Can Prayer increase gratitude? Psychology of Religion and Sprituality.Vol.1, No. 3, 139-149.
McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112- 127.
Tsang, J.A. (2006) Gratitude and social behaviors: An experimental test of gratitude. Cognition and Emotion. 20(1), 138-148.DOI: 10.1080/02699930500172341.
Smith, B.N., Dalen, J., Wiggins, K., Tooley, E., Christopher, P., & Bernard. (2008).The brief resilience scale: assessing the ability to bounce back. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15,195-200
Snyder, C.R., Harris, C., Anderson, J.R, Holleran, S.A., Irving, L.M., Sigmon, S.T et al (1991).The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measures of hope -Journal of personality & social psychology, 60,570-585.