As
we get older the presence of disease in our body increase.  We have a hard time maintain fluid
electrolyte and an acid-base balance. 
Older adults are taking an increase number of medication, suffer from
high blood pressure, and heart disease. 
They are at risk of having lung disease and kidney disease.  With older adults their risk factors increase
which includes diabetes, obesity, infections, dementia, and cancer.

Metabolic
acidosis is a decrease in HCO3- due to an increase in acid or a loss of
HCO3-.  There are three reasons that the
blood level of HCO3- may be lower. 
First, the actual loss of HCO3-, second, the accumulation of an acid
other than carbonic acid, and third, the failure of the kidneys.  Sometimes the chemical balance of acids and
bases gets thrown off and your body begins to make too much acid or maybe it
isn’t getting rid of enough acid or doesn’t have enough base to offset a normal
amount of acid. Some causes for metabolic acidosis are alcoholic ketoacidosis,
diabetic ketoacidosis, kidney failure, lactic acidosis, toxins-overdose of
salicylates, renal tubular acidosis, hyperchloremic acidosis which include
severe diarrhea, laxative abuse, or kidney problems.  If pH is in normal range than HCO3- will be
low and the compensation will be complete. 
Treatment includes detoxification, insulin, IV fluids, and Sodium
bicarbonate, by IV.

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Metabolic
alkalosis is an increase in HCO3- and occurs because of a loss of H+.  If there is an increase in pH then there is
no increase in compensation.  The pH
would increase if there is a non-respiratory loss of acid.  Some causes of metabolic alkalosis are
prolonged vomiting, diuretics, adrenal disease, a large loss of potassium or
sodium in a short amount of time, antacids, accidental ingestion of HCO3-,
which could be found in baking sodium, laxatives, alcohol abuse, severe
dehydration, disease that cause loss of potassium, administration of HCO3-,
ingestion of alkali.  If there is an
increase in HCO3- then it is due to the loss of acid or gain of HCO3-.  There will be a normal pH if compensation is
completed.  There will also be a high
HCO3-.  One treatment for metabolic
alkalosis is giving fluid solutions to correct deficiencies.

Respiratory
acidosis occurs when the lung can’t remove enough carbon dioxide.  It’s an increase in Pco2 and a decreased in
pH if there is no compensation.  It
becomes acidic when the excess carbon dioxide causes the pH to decrease.  When the lung can’t remove enough carbon
dioxide it could be caused by a decrease in respiratory rate.  For compensation to be complete there will be
an increase in excretion of H+ and an increased reabsorption of HCO3-.  PH will then be in normal range.  Some cause of respiratory acidosis is
Hypoventilation due to emphysema, pulmonary edema, trauma to respiratory
center, airway obstructions, or dysfunction of muscles of respiration, asthma,
COPD, pneumonia, and sleep apnea, Treatment for respiratory acidosis includes
ventilation therapy and intravenous administration of HCO3-.

Respiratory
alkalosis causes a decreased in systemic arterial blood Pco2 and an increased
pH if there is no compensation.  When the
level of carbon dioxide and oxygen are not balanced or if there is not enough
carbon dioxide in your bloodstream that is when respiratory alkalosis
occurs.  If the pH of the blood rises it
will become alkaline.  Pco2 will be low
and the pH will nor if the compensation is completed.  Some causes of respiratory alkalosis rare
hyperventilation, high fever, lack of oxygen, pneumonia, embolism, exercise,
central nervous system tumor, trauma, infection, salicylate poisoning, high
altitudes, liver disease, or lung disease.  
A treatment for respiratory alkalosis is to inhale and exhale into a
paper bag.

Respiratory
is a change in Pco2 and metabolic is a change in HCO3-.  There are two categories of acid-base
disorders.  Respiratory, which is
affected by the breathing or some type of lung disease and metabolic which
affects the kidney.  Compensation occurs
when the valve is in the normal range. 
When the valve is not in normal range then no compensation will occur.

The
normal pH range is between 7.35 and 7.45. 
Alkalosis is when the blood pH is higher than 7.45 and acidosis is when
the blood pH is below 7:35.  An acid-base
imbalance could be caused by pH, a concentration of HCO3-, and Pco2.  The change in pH can be caused by the Pco2 or
HCO3- being out of normal range.  If
there is an imbalance in the pH it could be caused by a base which is an excess
of acid or alkali or the imbalance could be caused by some other condition or
disease.  You have to maintain a normal
blood pH in order to process the right amount of oxygen to the tissue. 

In
my paper, I will discuss Alkalosis and Acidosis.  I will define respiratory alkalosis,
respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, and metabolic acidosis.  Identify at least three or more common causes
for each condition.  Describe the
compensator mechanism including whether the kidneys or the lung assist.  Describe the treatment mechanisms for each
condition and how older age compromise the acid-base balance process.

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