A bit is
the little amount of data in the computer. Bits have a single binary value, 0
or 1. Computers typically provide to control and manipulate bits, but are typically
designed to store data and to access bit numerous instructions is called bytes.
Boolean operators are simple words (AND, OR, XOR & NOT) join which joins or
excludes search terms in belonging search productive results. Avoid
inappropriate strokes and save time and effort. It must be scanned before being
destroyed. AND represent that one statement is true and other is false. OR
represent any one statement is correct. In XOR only one statement is true. NOT
represent we will give input then give to contrast output. A Device which give
us an output when we give input. It is called Gates. A group of circuit is
known as Flip Flop. For the purpose of storing data, a computer covers a large
group of circuits (such as flip-flops), each skilled of storing a single
bit.  This reservoir is called the
machine’s main memory. A computer’s Main memory organize in controllable units.
This unit is called Cell. Every cell consists of 8 bits and 8 bits equal to one
byte. In a computer there is no left and right. Bits place in a row. The left
side of this row is called high order end and the other end is low order end.  

categorize specific cells in a computer’s main memory, each cell is allocated a
unique “name” is called address. In computer’s main memory is organized as
specific, addressable cells, the cells can be recover independently as needed.
To show the capability to access cells in any way, a computer’s main memory its
known Random Access Memory (RAM). Due to the decreasing limitation of store
data in computer and volatility of data, mostly in computers have additional
memory device. This is called Mass storage. A spinning disk is magnetic coated.
It is used to read and write data, is called Magnetic disk. Another class of
mass storage systems applies visual technology. An example is the Compact Disk (CD).
Information is recorded on them by creating variations in their reflective
surfaces. This information can then be retrieved by means of a laser beam that
detects irregularities on the reflective surface of the CD as it spin. A Flash
drive is an ultra-portable device. It is very small and dissimilar an optical
or conventional hard drive. This device is the combination of USB device and
cable. Data store in the form of group as large unit. It is called File. The
technique which is used to data transferring and storing. It is reduce the size
of data. It is called Data Compression. The code not only detects the mistakes
but also correct the mistakes, its known Error correcting code.

The code
which does is encoded to audios and videos. This code is called MPEG. Images
normally encode in GIF. How data can be encoded as bit patterns. Our study
focuses on popular methods for encoding Text Numerical data, Image, and Sound.
Each of these systems has repercussions that are often visible to a typical
computer user. Information in the form of text is normally represented by means
of a code in which each of the different indication in the text (such as the
letters of the alphabet and punctuation marks) is assigned an uncommon bit
pattern. The text is then represented as a long string of bits in which the
succeeding designs represent the successive indication in the original text
storing information in terms of encoded characters is inefficient when the
information being recorded is purely numeric. Suppose the problem of storing
the amount 25. If we insist on storing it as encoded symbols in ASCII using one
byte per symbol, we need a total of 16 bits. Moreover, the largest number we
could store using 16 bits is 99. One means of representing an image is to
interpret the image as a collection of dot. The appearance of each pixel is
then encoded and the entire image is represented as a collection of these
encoded pixels. Such a collection is called a Bit Maps.